October 29 in Russian history

Once again, contributed by Mosquito:


It wasnt good day in Russian history. Tsar Vasili IV was giving homage and paying tribute to king Sigismundus III of Poland. In the presence of Polish-Lithuanian parliament the tsar of Russia and his brothers felt on knees and gave russian crown to Polish king.

Vasili IV was taken prisoner by Polish commander Jan Zolkiewski and was sent to Warsaw. Imprisoned in Poland died one year later. Sigismundus loved collecting important prisoners in his dungeons. Not much earlier he had archduke Maximillian von Habsburg of Austria.

Once during dinner Turkish emissary said that is really great king who has such prisoners. First Habsburg and next - tsar of Russia. He also asked the king to bring the Tsar. Soon Vasili IV had to join the dinner and eat together with Polish king and Ottoman diplomat. The Turk was watching the Tsar and finally said : lets raise the cups and drink for the glory of such great king. Vasili answered: "dont be astonished, after Sigismundus will sit on the throne of Russia, soon your sultan will join me in my prison". However Sigismundus III did much to achieve it, he has never become the tsar, Poland soon engaged for 50 years long wars against Sweden. Sigismundus lost swedish throne and in the end of his reign he not only didnt have Sweden but even didnt have Russia, which in 1611 he belived that he conquered.

After the death of Vasili, king of Poland build in Warsaw great mausoleum of the tsar. All the Russian emissaries to king, first had to go to mausoleum and watch it before were allowed to see the king. In this way Sigismundus was demonstrating his might and glory. In 1634 tsar Mikhail Romanov sent to Warsaw prince Lvov and prince Projestiew with the task to buy the corpse of Vasili for 10.000 rubles in gold. Polish senate was going to reject but finally King of Poland Wladislav IV answered that the dead corpse is not somthing that can be traded for monay and let Russians to take the body of tsar back to Russia. But the building of mausoleum was still there and was angering all the Russian tsars. In 1647 Russian tsar demanded from king Vladislav IV to destroy mausoleum as it was in his opinion an insult to all Russians and especially to tsar but the king refused and gave Russians only the table with inscriptions which were describing who was burried there and how he was defeated by Polish armies. In 1678 Russians demanded from Poland 2 pictures that were in Royal castle which were showing Tsar Vasili on the knees before Polish king. Finally in the 18th century the pictures were given as the gesture of friendship by king Augustus II of Poland and Saxony to tsar Peter the Great. Today mausoleum no longer exists and is as forgotten as tsar Vasili IV.


Russian history 44. Dimitri Donskoy and the battle of Kulikovo field

Sons of Ivan Kalita died young. Simeon the Proud died during the epidemics of plague and Ivan the Red died of an unknown cause, being only 31 years old. Simeon had no children and Ivan had two sons. This meant that the land of the Moscow knyazes was not split between the heirs, as it happened in other principalities. After the death of Ivan the Red, when no adult knyazes were alive, the yarlyk for the duchy of Moscow was given to the knyazes of Suzdal. But the ten years old knyaz of Moscow Dimitri Ivanovich began the struggle for his heritage. Metropolitan Alexy and Moscow boyars assisted him. He managed to convince the khan and soon received the yarlyk and the title of the grand knyaz of Vladimir. The knyaz of Suzdal Dimitri Konstantinovich was the grand knyaz for only two years.

In the first years, the state was run by metropolitan Alexy and the boyars. Later, when Dimitri grew up, he began ruling himself. He continued the politics of Alexy.

So, firstly, he insisted that the title of the grand knyaz and the town Vladimir are the private and inherited property of the Moscow knyazes.

Secondly, he interfered the affairs of Ryazan, Novgorod and other principalities and dictated his will. When Suzdal and Tver attempted to oppose him, he forced them to obedience. The conflict with Tver was especially long and stubborn. Knyaz of Tver Mikhail Alexandrovich asked Lithuanian knyazes for help and Olgerdas besieged Moscow, but couldn't take the city and returned to Lithuania. After that the Moscow army layed siege to Tver. At last, in 1375 the knyaz of Tver acknowledged himself "the younger brother" of the knyaz of Moscow and refused to compete for the title of the grand knyaz. Since then, Lithuania became an enemy of Muscovy. Dimitri also fought against Nizhny Novgorod and when they attempted to retain the independence, he forced them to pay 8,000 rubles of contribution.

Thirdly, Dimitri was the first who dared to oppose the Mongols after centuries of the occupation. This became possible because of the internal feuds in the Horde. Khans killed each other till the Horde fell apart into two hostile halves. During these feuds groups of Mongol exiles formed gangs which roamed and robbed Russian and Mordovian lands along rivers Oka and Sura. Since they did not represent the "official" Golden Horde, knyazes of Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow sent their armies against them and even local irregulars easily drove them away, chased and killed them. It was a good moment to test the growing strength of Rus. This made the khans to collect a large army against Rus. This army, led by Arabshakh, defeated Russians on river Pyana (a tributary of Sura) and sacked Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod. Russians revenged by devastating the Mordovian lands, controlled by the Mongols (poor Mordovians... DM). Khan Mamay sent his troops to punish Rus. They burned Nizhny Novgorod and captured Ryazan. However, Dimitri of Moscow won the battle on river Vozha in 1378 and drove the enemy away from Muscovy.

So, by repelling the wandering robbers Russians got into an open conflict with the khans, who supported these gangs. These small victories provided good training and added courage to the Russians. Khan Mamay had to either give up control over Rus or re-conquer her. Two years after the battle of Vozha, in 1380, Mamay began a new campaign.

Expecting strong resistance, Mamay gathered a large army and contacted Lithuania, offering them a joint campaign. Jogaila, the successor of Olgerdas, promised to join the Mongolian army on September 1, 1380. Oleg, the knyaz of Ryazan, learned of the upcoming invasion, contacted Mamay and offered an alliance, trying to save his lands from devastation. Dimitri of Moscow had to collect all his allies, knyazes of Rostov, Yaroslavl and other cities. He also sent to Novgorod and some other cities to ask for help, but the help was late. However, his army was large enough to withstand the Mongols. Dimitri left Moscow in August 1380. Before he left, he visited Sergius in his monastery. The famous hegumen sent two of his monks to the Dimitri's army — Peresvet and Oslyabyá. First, the Moscow army moved to Kolomna on the border with the Ryazan principality, because they thought that Mamay will take the route via Ryazan. When they learned that the Mongols are moving further to the west to join their forces with the Lithuanians, they also went to the west, to Serpukhov. Russians decided not to wait for Mamay on the border, but to attack him before the enemies' armies merge. Dimitri crossed rivers Oka and Don and came to Kulikovo field, where river Nepryadva meets Don. Jogaila was one day's march away when Russians and Mongols met. Dimitri ordered a regiment led by Dimitri's cousin Vladimir Andreevich and a boyarin Bobrok to hide in a wood near Don. The army of Mamay attacked Russians and almost overcame them. Many Russians died and Dimitri himself was missed in action, he lay under a tree unconscious. And then the hidden regiment attacked. The Mongols didn't expect this strike and fled. The victory was decisive, but too may people were killed. Two years ago, in 1382, when a new khan, Tokhtamysh, who had dethroned Mamay, suddenly attacked Rus again, Dimitri did not have enough warriors and had to leave Moscow and go to the north. Tokhtamysh took Moscow, sacked it and burned. Other cities were captured, too. Dimitri had to pay tribute again and to send his son Vasily as a hostage to the Horde.

Nevertheless, the battle at Kulikovo field was an important mileston. First, it has shown that Russians can defeat Mongols. Second, in the eyes of the Russians, the knyaz of Moscow fought for all Rus, while Ryazan betrayed them and Novgorod failed to help. All minor principalities now eagerly accepted the leadership of Muscovy. So, the battle at Kulikovo field significantly accelerated the concentration of lands under the rule of the knyazes of Moscow.


October 26 in Russian history


Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich capture the capital of the Siberian Khanate, town Qashliq (or Isker, or Sibir). The dating of this event is not clear. Some chronicles say it happened in 1581, some even talk about 1579.

In mid-16th century, the relations between Russia and the Siberian khans were very good. The khans, brothers Yadigar and Bekbulat, asked Russia for protection and recognized their vassalage to Muscovy. They agreed to pay tribute for this protection. The tribute payed in furs and sometimes in kettle was called yasak. This form of tribute was common in relations between Russia and the Siberian peoples.

The Siberian khanate was formed around 1495, when members of the Taibugid family, members of Borjigin clan, the clan of Genghis Khan, revolted against Ibak khan (Ibrahim), the khan of the Tyumen khanate, and killed him. Yadigar and Bekbulat belonged to the Taibugid family. In 1553, a descendent of Ibak khan, Kuchum, killed them to revenge for his grandfather's death and became the khan of the Siberian khanate. For some years, he continued to fight the resistance of many tribes and peoples living in the khanate. He continued to pay yasak till 1571. As soon as he suppressed the resistance, he broke the relations with Russia and began raiding the lands recently gained by Russia in the war with the Kazan khanate. There his soldiers entered the lands of the Stroganovs. This family possessed huge territories in Urals and their activities were extremely important later for the industrial development of this region.

What happened later is not known in details, but Stroganovs were clearly vexed by the attacks of Kuchum. Either they hired a group of Cossacks led by Yermak, or they simply provided them with food, weapons and equipment. Some even say that the Cossacks simply stole the equipment from the stores owned by Stroganovs. Anyway, the Cossacks, about 800 people on boats, departed to the east. After some battles, when Yermak totally defeated the armies of Kuchum, in October 1582 (?), the Cossacks captured the capital of the Siberian khanate, the city called Qashliq, or Isker, or Sibir.

Actually, it was the end of the Siberian khanate. Nevertheless, Kuchum survived and led his army to the woods. For some years, they continued to oppose Yermak and finally, on August 6 1585, they ambushed a Cossacks' detachment and killed Yermak Timofeyevich. The other Cossacks left Qashliq and Siberia. However, a year later Russians began an organized advancement to Siberia. New towns and fortresses were built, new troops were sent to protect these settlements and new settlers came. Russian tsar Feodor I invited Kuchum to come and live in Russia, but Kuchum continued to oppose Russians till his death in around 1605, when he was killed in Nogai Horde, trying to steal kettle from Nogais. His grandson, Arslan, was captured and became later the khan of the Qasim khanate, a small Tatar territory near Ryazan on river Oka, vassal of Russia.


The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Council of Minister of the USSR adopt a resolution on measures aimed at the intensification of fish production and sales. In canteens and restaurants Thursday was proclaimed "the fish day", when almost all dishes included seafood. Almost every ex-Soviet citizen shudders recalling these Thursdays.


October 25 in Russian history


Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich the Quietest adopts the Trade Statute (also known as the Customs Statute). This law brought order into the highly complicated customs system of Russia. The Russian History Encyclopedia at answers.com writes:

The Trade Statutes of 1653 and 1667 governed domestic and foreign trade in seventeenth-century Russia, and streamlined a highly complex and confusing system of some seventy different internal customs duties that added to transportation costs and created ample opportunity for corruption and cheating. Subjecting all goods and merchants to a uniform and consistent set of customs duties promoted efficiency by making long-distance trade more profitable and predictable. The statutes also became key elements in the implementation of a mercantilist agenda designed to promote the interests of domestic merchants. The commercial code (Torgovy ustav) of October 1653 was adopted in direct response to an August 1653 petition by leading Russian merchants against transit duties and for a unified rate of customs duty. The code combined a uniform internal rate with an overall increase in imposts. It further adopted uniform measures of weight and length throughout the country. A basic 5 percent impost was levied on sold goods, with the exception of salt (double the rate), furs, fish, and horses (old duties applied). No duties were levied on foreign currency sold to the government at a fixed rate. A special duty of 2.5 percent was applied to goods offered exclusively in border towns for export. Under the 1653 code, foreign merchants were required to pay a 6 percent duty in the Russian interior, in addition to a 2 percent transit duty. However, exports from Arkhangel'sk were taxed at only 2 percent. A related 1654 decree (Ustavnaya gramota) abolished transit duties on noble and church lands.

This day is now celebrated as the birthday of the Russian customs service.


21 year old Alexey Peshkov, who later became known as the proletarian writer Maxim Gorky, was arrested in Nizhny Novgorod. It was a strange story, to tell you the truth. Peshkov couldn't graduate from the school because of poverty, but in 1884 he met a group of socialists in Kazan who taught poor people writing and reading. In 1887 he attempted to commit suicide, being exhausted by hard work and one-sided love. In October 1889, a lawyer from Nizhny Novgorod, A. Lanin hired Peshkov as a scribe. Lanin allowed Alexey to use his home library. Gorky later recalled him with warmth and love. Gorky shared an apartment with someone Sergey Somov. Somov, it seems, was a student from Kazan, who was fired from the university after the assault on the students' movement in Kazan. He was sure he was a genius. One of his written, but not published works was title "The Electric Theory of Sociology". Peshkov was arrested exactly because of his good relations with Somov. Peshkov was interrogated by the chief of the city police, general I. Poznyansky. Poznyansky had his own sad story, which Peshkov knew, just like the whole city. 10 years earlier, his son was found dead, poisoned by a huge dose of morphium. He often spoke to Peshkov: "You write? So what? When I release you, show your stories to Korolenko, he's a good writer, like Turgenev." So he did. Peshkov went to Korolenko and asked him to read his stories. Soon he met other known writers of those years: Annensky, Batyushkov, Grigorovich and others. Three years later, in 1892, Gorky published his first short story, Makar Chudra. Yet six years later, in 1898, he published a book titled Essays and Stories, which became a huge success.

Books I Read: Marcus Aurelius, by François Fontaine

1.26 DONE [#4] Marcus Aurelius by François Fontaine. (François Fontaine. Marc Auréle. 1991)    nonfiction history

  • State "DONE" 2007-10-19 Fri 17:13

    This book was not written by a historian, but by a politician. François Fontaine is a EU official and an amateur in history. To a certain degree, this only makes the book more interesting. So, traditional historians compare the Aurelius' Roman empire with the Roman republic and with the Athenian democracy and conclude that Rome was ruled by despotism. Fontaine, on the other hand, compares the empire with the modern democracies and from his point of view the empire was rather liberal and open. Freedom of speech, local self-government, etc. So, for Fontaine, Aurelius is an ancient analog of a president. Life-long, but why not?

    Talking about the Roman "colonialism", Fontaine quotes Aelius Aristides: "The world has become a common motherland for all people. Barbarians and Greeks can travel safely wherever they want. You [Romans] have enhanced life, brought law and order." He describes Roman Gallia as a calm peaceful land protected by Rome. "The image of a province crucified and tortured by the conquerors is a myth," says he.

    These views are quite common among the lovers of the Roman history (including myself), and they are not completely wrong. Fontaine makes some factual errors, like saying that Aristotle and Plato were teachers of monarchs, or when he talks about the deification of the emperors: "The deification was almost automatical and only the emperors like Nero or Domitian were not proclaimed divine." These errors are, however, few.

    What is worse is that Fontaine does not reach his goal. He fails to show Marcus Aurelius. We learn about historical events of this epoch, some rumors about Cassius Avidius and Faustina, some basic facts about the Roman culture, but every time the author attempts to describe Aurelius as an emperor, as a man or as a philosopher, he miserably fails. He doesn't attempt to analyze whether the politics of Aurelius was a direct consequence of his philosophy (as, for example, P. Noyen wrote in his Marcus Aurelius, the Greatest Practician of Stoicism) or there is a gap between them (as G. R. Stanton wrote in Marcus Aurelius, Emperor and Philosopher). He says nothing on the specific features of the Aurelius' stoicism or on the influence of Epicurus on Aurelius. He finds the time for a professional diatribe against Russia (?!), saying: "May this fruit of the Byzantine reincarnation of the empire searches for its roots wherever they want: lack of measure is their hereditary problem, not ours," but not for the specific lexicon of stoicism, knowledge of which is a must for any reader of Aurelius.

    And finally, when the author attempts to make conclusions, he at last throws away the historian's hat and returns to the politician's self-righteous tone. He makes a great discovery stating that he has found the root cause of the fall of Rome: the Roman society did not believe in the "spirit of changes" and technology, while our civilization followed this way and developed a new culture, based on unlimited (sic!) expansion. He has also discovered the only true heir of the magnificent Rome. Of course, it's ex-Gallia.

    I give this book 4 stars out of 9. It's an easy reading with a moderate number of errors. By no means a "must read", but might be interesting for a relaxing dilettante. Like me.

  • State "READING" 2007-10-07 Sun 17:10
  • State "TOREAD" 2007-09-21 Fri 13:59

    ISBN: 5-235-02787-6
    DDC: 94(37)(092)
    BBK: 63.3(0)32-8

  • Марк Аврелий / пер. с фр. Н. Н. Зубкова; Вступ. ст. Т. А. Бобровниковой. - М.: Молодая гвардия, 2005. - 319[1] с.: ил. - (Жизнь замечательных людей: Сер. биогр.; Вып. 942).


Russian history 43. Grand knyaz Ivan Kalita and his successors

We know little of the rule of Ivan Kalita, but this little tells us of his talents. As the chroniclers said, when he became the grand knyaz, "great calmness came to the Russian land for forty years, and the Tatars stopped fighting the Russian land". Probably, it was Kalita who obtained the permission from the Mongols to bring the tribute to the Golden Horde, without the Mongol tribute collectors. So, the Mongols almost stopped to come to Rus. Since this was one of the main causes of numerous rebellions, the social peace was established in Rus. The legends say also that Kalita cleared Rus of robbers and thieves. The social order and peace attracted new settlers to Rus. The main political achievement of Kalita was that he convinced the metropolitan of Rus to move to Moscow.

After the decline of Kiev, the church leadership had to decide whether they should stay in Kiev or to look for a new location. About 1300, after Mongols raided Kiev again, the metropolitan Maxim moved to Vladimir. After that, the knyazes of Galich asked the Constantinople patriarch to establish a new metropoly in south-western Rus. The patriarch refused to split the Russian church. After the death of Maxim, he appointed hegumen (abbot) Peter, who was born in Volyn (near Galich), the new metropolitan. When Peter came to Kiev, he soon followed Maxim and moved to the north, too. Officially, his residence was in Vladimir. However, this city had already lost its importance and the was contested by Moscow and Tver. Peter supported Moscow and Ivan Kalita. He lived often in Moscow, founded the Uspensky cathedral in Moscow. His successor, Greek Theognostos, finally chose Moscow his residence and made Moscow the official capital of the Russian church. So, Moscow became both political and religious center of Rus. The status of the grand knyaz obtained by Kalita gave him support of the boyars, too, since their position at the court of the grand knyaz was more prestigious than in other principalities.

Under the rule of Ivan Kalita (1328-1341) and his sons Simeon the Proud (1341-1353) and Ivan the Red (1353-1359), Moscow began to overcome the neighboring principalities. They demonstrated that they can support peace not only in their appanage, but in the whole Vladimir-Suzdal principality. The social peace was so important for the population of the bordering lands, that they eagerly joined the duchy of Moscow.

After Theognostos moved to Moscow, he chose and prepared a heir for himself -- a Muscovite Alexy, an offspring of a noble family of Pleshcheyevs. During the rule of Ivan the Red, who was a weak ruler, and his little son Dimitry, Alexy virtually ruled the duchy of Moscow. Multifaceted talents of Alexy earned him respect in the Golden Horde, where he healed the eyes of Taidula, a khan's wife. In the Russian politics he consistently backed the leadership of Muscovy. He and his followers propagated the perception of the power as the state established by god. The strength of Muscovy was very important for their plans to unite the lands under one strong ruler. After Alexy a monk named Sergii (Sergius), the founder of the famous Troitsky (Trinity) monastery (now Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra 70 kilmetres north from Moscow), continued his policy and supported the knyazes of Moscow.

Muscovy was protected from foreign invasions by border principalities (Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Smolensk, etc.), it was in peace with the Golden Horde and retained social peace. This security attracted people to Moscow. The knyazes of Moscow built new villages and towns for the newcomers, liberated Russians enslaved by Mongols and brought them to their lands. Their policy was directed at the growth of the population.

So, the first successes of the knyazes of Muscovy and their rise above other principalities brought them support of the aristocracy, the religious leaders and the population of the neighboring lands. Till the end of the XIV century, under Ivan Kalita and his sons, the growth was more or less occasional. Later, when the Moscow knyazes became the protectors of Rus against the Horde and Lithuania, Moscow became the centre of the national unification, and the knyazes of Muscovy became the national leaders.


October 22 in Russian history


Birthday of Lev Ivanovich Yashin, goalkeeper of the Soviet football squad, the best football goalkeeper of the XX century, the only goalkeeper to become the European Footballer of the Year, Olympic champion, 1960 European champion, 5 times USSR championship winner, 3 times USSR Cup winner, player of the FIFA Best of the World XI team, who was awarded Order of Lenin, Hero of Socialist Labor medal, Olympic order, FIFA Golden Medal for Merits, and so on, so on, so on.

He was born in a working family. In 1941, when the war started, his family was evacuated to Ulyanovsk, where his began working at a facctory. In 1944, they returned to Moscow. The work at the factory was exhausting and in 1947 he suffers a nervous. He left work and home and lived at his friend. In the USSR all citizens were obliged to work somewhere, and Yashin's friends advised him to join the army. So he did, and soon he met a football trainer, Alexey Chernyshov, who invited him to the junior team Dynamo Moscow. By 1949, Yashin became the third goalkeeper of Dynamo, together with two other famous goalies — Alexey Khomich and Walter Sanaya. The beginning of his career was very disappointing — he made some silly mistakes and conceded unexpected goals. Yashin became interested in ice hockey and even won the USSR Cup. However, Khomich taught him to work at the training sessions as hard as possible, and by mid-50s Yashin becomes a football star. Since 1953 he is the first goalkeeper of Dynamo and in 1954 he became the champion of the USSR for the first time.

His success coincided with the rise of the Soviet football in general, and this gave him chances to become the best goalkeeper in the world. Olympic Games of 1956 and the Europeans championship of 1960 were the two best results of the Soviet sportsmen.

Yashin was a good friend of many legends of football, like Pele, Beckenbauer, Eusebio. His wife Valentina recalled that in 1958, in Sweden, in a hotel, Yashin grabbed by the neck a young black boy running down the stairways and said her: "Meet Pele, Valentina. He will soon be the player that was never seen before." All these stars participated in Yashin's last, 813th game, World Stars vs USSR, that took place in Moscow in 1971. 41-years old Yashin kept yet another clean sheet in this game. At the end of this last game he said a short speech addressing the fans. Here's the full transcript of the speech: "Thanks, people..."

Yashin spent all his career in one club, Moscow Dynamo. However, he played in more than one squad. Besides the Soviet team, he played in the World team and once he was even the captain of the Turkey team in a game against Galatasaray, which was the last game of the Turkish goalkeeper Turgay Şeren.

Lev Yashin was a heavy smoker and the health problems forced the doctors to amputate his leg. He died in 1990 because of the complications.

Russian history 42. Reasons for the rise of Moscow

As we have seen before (see chapter 36), in the times of the Mongol occupation the appanage system appeared in Vladimir-Suzdal principality. This system was dismantled after the rise of the duchy of Moscow.

Muscovy as a separate duchy appeared in the second half of XIII century. The city of Moscow was founded by knyaz Yuri Dolgorukiy, son of Vladimir Monomakh. For the first time Moscow was mentioned in the chronicles in 1147 and then in 1156 and 1176, under the names Moscov, Kuchkovo and Moskva. Originally, Moscow was a fortress, erected on the southern border of Suzdal principality to protect it from the attacks from Ryazan and Chernigov. When Batu khan went from Ryazan to Suzdal and Vladimir, first of all he took Moscow, which blocked the way to these cities. Knyaz Alexander Nevsky gave Moscow to his younger son Daniil as an appanage.

The first reason for the rise of Moscow was its special geographic position. Moscow was located at the junction of roads leading from southern Russia to northern Russia and from Ryazan to Novgorod. The settlers moving from the southern lands northwards passed Moscow and many of them stayed there. The population of the Moscow principality grew fast, and this increased the incomes of the knyaz of Moscow. On the other hand, river Moscow was a waterway connecting the upper Volga and the middle Oka. The Novgorod merchants used this way to transport grain, wax and honey from the rich lands near Ryazan. They payed taxes to the knyaz of Moscow. This wealth gave the knyazes of Moscow significant political and military power.

The second reason were the talents of the first knyazes of Moscow. The two first knyazes, Daniil Alexandrovich and his son Yuri, took the lands along the whole river Moscow, tearing the towns Kolomna from the Ryazan principality and Mozhaisk from Smolensk principality. Also, Daniil inherited Pereyaslavl-Zalessky from the childless knyaz of Pereyaslavl. Yuri Daniilovich became so influential that he decided to ask the Golden Horde for yarlyk to become the grand knyaz of Vladimir, competing with the knyaz of Tver Mikhail Yaroslavich (Mikhail was a nephew of Alexander Nevsky and an uncle of Yuri Daniilovich). Since the political struggle in the Horde was led by all means, including conspiracies and violence, both knyazes were murdered in the Horde. The title of the grand knyaz was given to Alexander of Tver, son of Mikhail. The throne of the knyaz of Moscow was inherited by Yuri's brother Ivan, whose nick-name was Kalitá (the Purse). Kalita renewed the struggle against Tver and in 1328 he finally became the grand knyaz. Since then, this title belonged to the knyazes of Moscow.


October 15 in Russian history


By October 15, the Nazi armies came very close to Moscow. The State Committee of Defense adopted the following order:

Due to the unfavorable situation in the region of the Mozhaisk defense line, the SCoD has ordered: To authorize comrade Molotov to inform the foreign diplomatic missions that they are to evacuate to Kuibyshev. To evacuate today the Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Government (Stalin evacuates tomorrow or later, depending on the situation). To evacuate the Narkomat (ministry) of defense and Narkomat of navy immediately to Kuibyshev, and the main group of the General Staff — to Arzamas.

2-3 days later the first government trains began to arrive to Kuibyshev. The chairman of the Supreme Council M. Kalinin and a member of SCoD K. Voroshilov were among the first evacuees. On October 20, the first foreign diplomats arrived. The diplomats were accompanied by 400 officers of NKGB (Narkomat of State Security). A group of Soviet military commanders, accused of a plot against Stalin, also arrived in one carriage of the same train. They were executed in Kuibyshev on October 28.

There was not enough buildings in Kuibyshev for all evacuated government institutions, and some of them were sent to Syzran and Ulyanovsk.

On October 22, the deputy head of Sovinformbureau (the Soviet information bureau) S. Lozovsky held the first press-conference for the foreign journalists. He said: "Today we resume our work in Kuibyshev. This move by no means recognizes that the defense of Moscow will be weakened. On the contrary, the organization of the defense will be even more effective.

On October 25, the general secretary of VTsSPS (the all-Union Central Council of Trade Unions) N. Shvernik met with the representatives of British trade-unions and visited the Maslennikov factory.

Kuibyshev remained the second capital of the USSR for a year and a half. The buildings where the foreign embassies were located are now marked with plaques. So, the British ministry embassy was located in a nice little palace near the embankment of Volga, where currently the Samara Palace of Children and Youth is located (on the photo).

Birch bark letters to be translated into English

I wrote about the online library of birch bark letters before (here and here). A good news: the full archive will be translated into English. A large part of the birch bark writings is already translated. The publication of the English texts is scheduled for early 2008.

Currently, the online catalog includes 1,049 inscriptions dated by XI-XV centuries and found in Veliky Novgorod, Vitebsk, Zvenigorod, Staraya Russa, Tver, Torzhok and other locations.

October 10 in Russian history

One more text written by Mosquito. It's a bit late, but it is my fault, sorry.

October 10, 1794

The Battle of Maciejowice between Poland and Russia.

Polish forces of 6200 men and 23 canons led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko planned to prevent the linking of two larger Russian armies, 12,000 and 55 canons under Iwan Fersen and 12,500 under Alexander Suvorov. Kosciuszko requested the support of general Adam Poniński (who had 4,000 soldiers) too late, Poniński failed to arrive on the battlefield in time. The Russians were victorious, and Kosciuszko was wounded and captured.

It was the last important battle of "Kosciuszko's insurection" which was an attempt to stop Russia and Prussia which were partitioning Poland.

Thaddeus Kosciusko (pol. full name Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko) was a Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of the 1794 uprising against the Russian Empire. He fought in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army on the side of Washington. In recognition of his service he was promoted by the Continental Congress to the rank of Brigadier General in 1783, and became a citizen of the United States that same year.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko was born February 4, 1746, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the teritorry of this what today is Belarus. As a youngster he was educating himself in Paris attending various lectures and the libraries of the military academies. After coming back to Poland he didnt find place for him in the Polish army, which after first partitions of Poland was reduced by Russia, Prussia and Austria to 10.000 soldiers. He came back to Paris where was informed about revolutionary war in the USA and recruited by Benjamin Franklin to Continental Army. Congresscommissioned him a Colonel of Engineers in the Continental Army and soon Kościuszko became head engineer of the Continental Army.

Kościuszko's first task in America was the fortification of Philadelphia. On September 24, 1776, Kościuszko was ordered to fortify the banks of the Delaware River against a possible British crossing. In the spring of 1777 he was attached to the Northern Army under General Horatio Gates. As the chief engineer of the army he commanded the construction of several forts and fortified military camps along the Canadian border. His work made significant contributions to the American successful retreat from the battle of Ticonderoga and victory at Saratoga in 1777. After the battle, Kościuszko, then regarded as one of the best engineers in American service, was put in charge by George Washington of military engineering works at the stronghold in West Point on the Hudson River.

After seven years of service, on October 13, 1783, Kościuszko was promoted by Congress to the rank of Brigadier General. He was also granted American citizenship, 2.5 square kilometres of land in America, and a large sum of money. He used the money to help some black slaves gain their freedom. He was also admitted to the prestigious Society of the Cincinnati, one of only three foreigners allowed to join, and to the American Philosophical Society.

In 1784 Kosciuszko came back to Poland. In 1791 Polish parliament enacted first modern written European consitution, so called constitution of 3rd may. Russia reacted invading Poland with the army of 100.000 soldiers. Kosciuszko fought in the war in defence of constitution and after it was lost in 1792 emigrated to Paris.

On January 13, 1793, Prussia and Russia signed the Second Partition of Poland. After the partition Poland became a small country of 200,000 square kilometres and a population of 4 million.

In June of 1793 Kościuszko prepared a plan of an all-national uprising, mobilisation of all the forces and a war against Russia. The preparations in Poland were slow and he decided to postpone the outbreak. However, the situation in Poland was changing rapidly. The Russian and Prussian governments forced Poland to again disband the majority of her armed forces and the reduced units were to be drafted to the Russian army. Also, in March the tsarist agents discovered the group of the revolutionaries in Warsaw and started arresting notable Polish politicians and military commanders. Kościuszko was forced to execute his plan earlier than planned and on March 15, 1794 he set off for Kraków.

During the Uprising, Kościuszko was made the Naczelnik (Commander-in-Chief) of all Polish-Lithuanian forces fighting against Russian occupation, and issued the famous Proclamation of Połaniec, giving freedom and land to serfs. After initial successes following the Battle of Racławice, he was wounded in the Battle of Maciejowice and taken prisoner by the Russians, who imprisoned him in Saint Petersburg. The Uprising ended soon afterwards with the Massacre of Praga when Russian commander, later great Russian national hero, marshal Suvorov ordered to murder civilian population in Praga - one of disctricts of Warsaw. The city was pillaged and burnt to the ground About 20,000 men, women and children were murdered. Suvorov himself proudly wrote that: "The whole of Praga was strewn with dead bodies, blood was flowing in streams."

In 1796 Paul I tsar of Russia pardoned Kościuszko and set him free. In exchange for his oath of loyalty, Paul I liberated also approximately 20,000 Polish political prisoners held in Russian prisons and forcibly settled in Siberia. Kościuszko emigrated to the United States, but the following year he returned to Europe and in 1798 he settled in Breville near Paris. Still devoted to the Polish cause, Tadeusz Kościuszko took part in creation of the Polish Legions. Also, on October 17 and November 6, 1799, he met Napoleon Bonaparte. However, he did not trust the French leader and decided not to support his idea of re-creation of Poland under the auspices of France.

Tadeusz Kościuszko died in Switzerland, falling from his horse in 1817. He became the symbol of fight for independence against Russia.


October 11 in Russian history


The Kiev law-court begins a process against Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Ukrainian Jew, who was accused of a murder. In March 1911, a 13-year old Andrei Yushchinsky was murdered and his body was found in a cave. He died of bleeding after receiving 47 wounds. Doctor Kosorotov said that the character of the wounds indicates that their goal was to cause as much suffering as possible and that no more than one third of blood remained in the body, which proved that the murder was committed to collect blood.

The best detective of the Kiev police, Nikolay Krasovsky, began the investigation. Vice-director of the Department of the Ministry of Justice Lyadov and the prosecutor of the Kiev court Chaplinsky insisted that he should look for the signs of a ritual murder committed by Jews. Krasovsky rejected this version and was fired from the police. Soon, an anonymous letter was received by police which said: "The boy was killed by Jew Beilis. How long will we endure?" On June 25, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a superintendant at a brick factory, was arrested and accused of the murder. Minister of Justice Shcheglovitov ordered the investigators to find as many proofs of his guilt as possible. Two years Beilis had spent in jail. Fortunately, many inmates supported him. So, someone Paszkowski, a Pole sentenced to penal servitude, refused to witness against Beilis.

When the trial began, the jury included seven peasants, five bourgeois and two state officials. When the advocates saw the list of the jurors, they were sure they had already lost the process. The newspapers wrote: "The murderer of Yushchinsky, Mendel Beilis, is a typical criminal, with heavy jaw and low forehead. His typical Jewish head is covered with matte-black hair. His body is wide and strong... The old painters often drew similar murderers and conspirators. He often produces a handkerchief and pretends he is crying." (Zemshchina, October 1). Other newspapers argue: "Not condescending to the disproof of the accusations of Jews in ritual murders, we protest against this process, which is an insult to the whole Russian people." (Den', October 20).

The advocates defending Beilis included a member of the State Duma Maklakov, well-known lawyer Karabchevsky, Zarudny, Gruzenberg and others. Writer Vladimir Korolenko also participated in the process. Krasovsky and a journalist Brazul-Brashkovsky held an independent investigation and came to the conclusion that Beilis is not guilty. They provided the proofs during the trial. Altogether, more than 200 witnesses participated in the process. A Catholic priest Pranaitis was an "expert", he said that the god had punished the Jews with abscesses and cankers and that the Jews heal them with the blood of Christians. The absolute ignorance of Pranaitis was demonstrated by a Kievan rabbi Mazo. Famous surgeons Pavlov and Kadyan refuted the conclusions of the medical expertise by Kosorotov. Finally, the evidences collected by Krasovsky and Brazul-Brashkovsky convinced the jury that Beilis was not guilty and that Yushchisky was murdered by a group of criminals. Beilis wrote later in his book: "I could never imagine that Russian non-Jews, like Brashkovsky and Krasovsky, will put their social position to risk in the name of truth and justice. I and my family will never forget these magnificent people."

The nationalists, who expected Beilis to be found guilty, were preparing large scale pogroms in Kiev. Instead of this, thousands of people from all Russia came to Kiev to shake hand of Beilis and give him a small present. An Orthodox priest came to Beilis, fell to his knees and asked him to forgive Russia.

In December 1913, Beilis left Russia. First to Palestine, than to USA, where he died in 1934.


Other blogs: A Soviet Poster A Day

I have just found an interesting blog related to the Soviet period of the Russian history: A Soviet Poster A Day. The author, Alexander Zakharov, also gives historical and cultural comments to the posters. The blog was started on July, 2007.

Alexander Zakharov also runs other blogs: Posters of Cuba and Woman At War are especially interesting.

October 9 in Russian history


Russian corps, led by general Zahar Grigoryevich Chernyshov and general Gottlob Curt Heinrich Graf von Tottleben, take hold of Berlin during the Seven Years' War.

The Seven Years' War was sometimes called the really first world war. It started in 1756 when Great Britain proclaimed the war on France, due to frequent conflicts between British and French settlers in North America. The chain of diplomatic relations brought to life two opposing groups of countries: Britain, Prussia, Portugal and Hannover opposed Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Saxony and Sweden. Russia entered the war in 1757. On October 3 (September 22 Old Style) the detachment of general Tottleben attacked Berlin, but were repelled. They were joined by the corps of Chernyshov, general Pyotr Panin and the Austrian troops of Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy. The Berlin garrison surrendered. By the way, Prussian prince of Wurtemberg preferred to report of the capitulation to ethnic German Tottleben, not to his commander Chernyshov. Chernyshov entered Berlin, took a good supplies of weapons, including artillery, and ammo, and demanded the city to pay 50,000 talers as a contribution. The property of the Berlin citizens, however, was not confiscated and the city was not plundered.

The triumph was not long. Frederick of Prussia gathered his army and marched towards Berlin. Chernyshov ordered to explode fortifications and warehouses and left. A month later, on November 3, Frederick won the last large battle of the Seven Years' War — the battle of Torgau. It seemed that the victory will not bring him any luck, since he lost about 40% of his army in this battle. He even had to explore the possibility of a truce. And then, the unexpected happens. The empress Elizabeth, who once said that she would continue the war even if she had to sell half of her dresses, died on January 5, 1762. Her heir, Peter III (Carl Peter Ulrich, as he was named at birth), was a fan of Prussia and of Frederick in particular. Of course, he had to save his beloved Frederick. Russia returned everything she had gained during the war, including the Eastern Prussia, and the corps of general Chernyshov was sent to Prussia to assist Frederick against the Austrians.

Probably, the only thing Russia had gained was the title of the Prussian colonel, granted to Peter III by Frederick. They say that Peter III was more proud of this title than of the crown of the Russian empire.

In July 1762, Peter III was dethroned and killed. He was succeeded by the empress Catherine II the Great. General Chernyshov was ordered to disengage from the Prussians, but he suppressed the order at the request of Frederick and took part in the battle of Burkersdorf. Nevertheless, he was not punished. Seven years later he became a field marshal. Later he was the governor of Belorussia and Moscow guberniya.


Russian history 41. Lithuanian duchy after Vytautas

After the death of Vytautas, his successors were elected by the Lithuanian nobles and their policy was now independent. The union, though, however weakened, still existed, because both countries needed the support of each other against foreign enemies. Only in 1440-1492, when Jogaila's younger son Kazimierz was the grand duke, the union was brought into full force again, since Kazimierz was elected both the duke of Lithuania and the king of Poland. After his death Lithuania seceded from Poland again and elected a new duke, Alexander. Only in 1501, when Poland also elected Alexander the king, both countries agreed to keep the union and to elect one ruler for both countries. This was when the union of 1386 finally became solid enough.

In spite of these attempts of secession, the Polish influence in Lithuania was getting stronger. The grand dukes were Polonized Catholics and as their power grew, the political structure became more centralized and the Catholics obtained certain privileges. This led to discontent among the Orthodox Lithuanians. Some of them seceded from Lithuania and joined Muscovy, others simply moved to Moscow. So, Moscow learned more about the internal affairs and problems of Lithuania and some times even started wars. This threat forced Lithuania to seek the Polish support even more actively.

Not only the aristocracy of Lithuania suffered from the new policy of the Catholic rulers. The political structure of the early Lithuanian-Russian duchy was copied after the structure of the Kievan Rus (see chapter 20). Now, it began to imitate the Polish order characterized by strict borders between estates, extremely wide rights of the aristocracy (szlachta) and self-governing cities (according to the Magdeburg rights). Szlachta was turning into the ruling class. They elected kings, owned the lands and had unlimited power over the peasantry. This system was advantageous for the nobility but not for the others. So the enmity between the omnipotent aristocrats and the rest of the population grew.


Books I Read: The Byzantine Civilization, by Andre Guillou

1.11 DONE [#4] Andre Guillou, The Byzantine Civilisation (Andre Guillou, La civilisation Byzantine)    nonfiction history

  • State "DONE" 2007-10-07 Sun 01:43
  • State "READING" 2007-08-28 Tue 16:24
    This is book was worse than other books from this series that I have read: The Civilisation of the Medieval Europe by Jacques Le Goff and the Civilisation of the Renaissance by Jean Delumeau. It starts with a geographical description of the Byzantine empire: a long list of names and very little information about the features of the regions, about links between geography and economics and culture. Then goes just as boring list of the titles of the imperial officials and very little on the functioning of the state. Speakin of the foreign politics, Guillou mentions marital ties with foreign rulers, and then goes a page and a half of examples and names. The list of the treasures of the church of St. Sophia takes five pages. However, the chapters on diplomacy, science and education are good and raise the final grade to 4 points.

    ISBN: 5-9709-0114-8
    BBK: 63.3(4) Г 51

  • State "TOREAD" 2007-06-19 Tue 12:40
  • Византийская цивилизация/пер. с франц. Д.Лоевского; предисл Р.Блока. - Екатеринбург: У-Фактория, 2005. - 552 с. (Серия "Великие цивилизации")
  • Andre Guillou, La civilisation Byzantine, Arthaud 1974.


Russian history 40. Vytautas

Being the king of Poland, Jogaila could not rule the duchy of Lithuania directly any more and he appointed one of his brothers, Skirgaila, the grand duke of Lithuania. Other Lithuanian dukes opposed this decision and in 1392 the son of Kestutis, Vytautas, replaced Skirgaila as the grand duke and a vassal of Jogaila. He pacified the other dukes and got rid of the personal dependence of Jogaila. On the congresses of the Polish and Lithuanian nobles in 1401 and 1413 the dynastic union was confirmed and Vytautas was recognized as the ruler of his own small duchy only. However, his unusual talents allowed him to become the direct heir of Gediminas and Olgerdas. In 1395 he adjoined the Smolensk principality to Lithuania, the territory of Lithuania grew and spread from the Baltic to the Black sea. Trying to increase his influence, Vytautas interfered the affairs of Novgorod, Pskov, Tver, Moscow, Ryazan and other Russian principalities. River Ugra (a tributary of Oka) became the border between Lithuania and the lands of the grand knyaz of Moscow Vasily, Vytautas' son-in-law. Vytautas even made some attempts to establish control over the Golden Horde, which was torn apart by the feuds, but the ruler of the Horde Edigu defeated Vytautas on river Vorskla and put an end to the expansion of Lithuania. This time was later thought to be the Golden Age of Lithuania. However, this was also the time when the first signs of the decay were noticed.

The strengthening of Vytautas was supported by those Lithuanians who opposed the union with Poland. One might think that Vytautas could leverage this support to make his duchy another Russian state, like Muscovy, and, probably, even unite the whole Rus under his rule. But Vytautas needed the support of Poland against the Teutonic Order. Besides, a new large group of population appeared in Lithuania, the proponents of the union. These people were motivated by the terms of the union defined by the Polish-Lithuanian congress of 1413 that took place in Horodlo: the Lithuanians who baptized in Catholicism, were granted the rights and privileges of the equal Polish estate. So, former members of the duke's druzhina entered the szlachta, the Lithuanian court copied the Polish one, and the top positions were given to Catholics only. This was a good opportunity for those who didn't mind to convert.

So, there were not two, but three parties now among the retinue of Vytautas: Orthodox-Russian, old Lithuanian and pro-Catholic. All of them were sure that the duke is on their side, but he never directly supported any of these parties. He might support the pro-Polish party, but they were still too weak. In the end of his life Vytautas even attempted to obtain the king's crown from the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, but failed and died in 1430, being unable to unite the three parties. The struggle between these parties became later the reason of the fall of the greatl Lithuanian-Russian duchy.


Sad result of a recent public opinion poll and the upcoming elections

In the Window on Eurasia blog, Paul Goble comments on the results of a public opinion poll held in three Russian cities (the data were taken from this article in Russian).

He says that "United Russia and KPRF draw support from those in the Russian Federation who support a more authoritarian and statist Russia than the one that first emerged after the collapse of the USSR". After reading the source article, I came to much more pessimistic conclusions. I've got a feeling that currently there is no demand in Russia for a political force that would consistently protect human rights of individuals from the state and there is no interest in democratic transformations. And you know, now that I've written these words I understand that I knew it before.

Paul Goble notes that the supporters of the United Russia, one of the most statist parties, tend to give the answers similar to those of the communists. In my opinion, he doesn't give sufficient attention to the fact that the supporters of Yabloko, the party which advertises itself as a proponent of the civil society, whose program states the "the state is for the man, not the man for the state", are not that different. The backers of the Union of Right Forces (SPS), the party that I voted for during the last elections to the local parliament, also tend to idealize the Stalinist epoch: 20% of them agree that "the atmosphere of happiness and optimism prevailed in the USSR during the Stalin's reign." 31% of Yabloko's supporters agreed with them.

Some more figures. 36% of communists, 35% of Yabloko supporters and 18% of SPS (one out of five!) think that less than 10 million people suffered from the Stalin's repressions. 49% of Yabloko and SPS supporters think that they are only proud of Russian history. 28% backers of Yabloko do not agree that Dzerzhinsky "ruthlessly destroyed innocent people". Among the SPS supporters 18% did not agree with the same statement and 42% said that they cannot answer this question. 45% of them also refused to estimate Lenin unequivocally.

An even more worrying position was taken by the SPS backers on the questions linked with xenophobia and nationalism. 24% of them said that the immigration to Russia must be forbidden and 44% think that the migrant workers may come to Russia to work if they will return home later.

The authors of the original review note that SPS seems to be split into two parts: a traditional democratic core and about one third of those who refuse to identify their position on "the most important historically and culturally orientated questions." They also hypothesize that the rising xenophobia repels potential backers of SPS.

On the one hand, I still hope that the democratic parties, in spite of the views of the voters, will retain their liberal attitude. For example, one of the best known human rights activists in Russia, Sergey Kovalev, is among the top three persons in the Yabloko's list of candidates to the Duma in the December elections. On the other hand, I am more and more inclined to refuse to vote for any party on these elections. After the recent attempts of SPS to exploit the leftist slogans to attract the voters, I don't think they will represent my personal political position in Duma. Nor will any other party.

Russian history 39. Union of Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila

Of many sons of Olgerdas, after his death (1377) Jogaila became his heir. Lacking the gifts and the nobility of his father, Jogaila compensated them with treacherousness. Together with Germans, he plotted against his uncle, Kestutis. Kestutis dethroned Jogaila, but spared his life. Finally, Jogaila started another revolt, treacherously captured Kestutis and ordered to strangulate him (1382). Kestutis' son, Vytautas, escaped from the jail and fled to the Teutonic knights. Soon her returned to Lithuania, made peace with Jogaila and even managed to get some of his father's lands back.

In 1385, Polish government offered Jogaila to marry the Polish princess Jadwiga. The Poles had good reasons for that. After the House of Piasts ended in 1370, the Polish crown went to the king of Hungary Louis I, and after his death in 1382 his little daughter Jadwiga inherited the throne. The Polish szlachta decided that Jogaila might be a good husband for their queen. First, Lithuania and Poland competed for the Russian provinces of Volyn and Galich. Lithuania adjoined Volyn and threatened to take Galich. This threat could be quelled by the marriage of Jogaila and Jadwiga. Second, the Germans who captured the Lithuanian shores of the Baltic sea, also took the Polish Pomorze (Pomerania) and controlled the trade along Vistula. The joint forces of Poland and Lithuanian could be more successful in the resistance to the Germans.

The proposal was happily accepted by Jogaila. The Poles required that he converts to Catholicism himself and converts Lithuania. Jogaila also agreed to unite the two countries into one state and to oppose the German threat. In 1386, Jogaila and Jadwiga married. The Lithuanians were baptised, the pagan sanctuaries were burnt. Jogaila helped the Poland to return the cities of Red Rus (Red Ruthenia), occupied by Hungarians: Galich, Lviv and others. At last, the joint forces of the Western Russia, Lithuania and Poland joint Lithuanian-Russian and Polish forces completely defeated the Teutonic order in 1410 on the border of Poland and Prussia, near the villages Grünwald and Tannenberg. The power of the Teutonic order was blown up and the importance of the united Poland and Lithuania grew immensely.

So, the goals of the union were achieved. The hostility between Lithuania and Poland was over, and their common enemy was destroyed. For Poland, the union was a success. Not so for Lithuania. Till 1386, there were two peoples (Rus and Lithuanians) and two religions (orthodox christianity and paganism) in Lithuania. The orthodox Russians accounted for about 90% of the whole population and represented a higher culture than the pagan Lithuanians, who were heavily influenced by the Russian culture. The union of 1386 made the Catholicism the religion of the ruling class and made the two branches of Christianity oppose each other. The Orthodox population was more numerous, but the Catholicism became the dominant religion, since it was the faith of the knyaz and his court. This brought the religious enmity to Lithuania. Polish clerics and officials replaced the Russian retinue of the knyaz and brought Polish culture and Latin language. The majority of the population of Lithuania and the Western Russia didn't accept the new traditions and opposed Jogaila.