January 23 in Russian history

1589: Until the schism of 1054, there were five patriarchates, but then Rome became a church of its own and only four patriarchs remained: in Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The Russian orthodox church since knyaz Vladimir was governed by a metropolitan, who was appointed by the patriarch of Constantinople. Since 23 Jan, 1589, the Russian church became a separate patriarchate, Russian metropolitan Job became the first patriarch of Russia.

1681: The first of thirteen Russo-Turkish wars is over (1676-1681). A 20-year truce was signed in Bakhchisaray (Crimea). After the Polish-Turkish war, when the Ottoman empire captured the region of Podolia, Turkey attempted to take the whole Right-bank Ukraine (territory to the West from river Dnieper), using the discontent among the Ukrainians. The joint Russian-Ukrainian army was beaten by Turks and the territory of Ukraine was split between Ottomans and Russia. According to the Bakhchisaray treaty, river Dnieper became the border between the two countries, but they also agreed not to settle between rivers Dnieper and Southern Buh. Crimean Tatars were allowed to live in the steppes on both sides of Dnieper. Cossacks had the right to fish, obtain salt and sail all along the Dnieper and its tributaries.

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