January 30 in Russian history

1489: Muscovy establishes diplomatic relationships with the Holy Roman Empire. During the late XV century, Muscovy had two strong enemies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman empire, and was looking for allies. To achieve this, Ivan III seeked to establish contacts with other European countries. He signs a treaty with Livonia in 1481, exchanged messages "of brotherhood and union" with Venice (1485), exchanged ambassadors with Austria (1489), signed a treaty with Hungary (1485), agreed on joint military actions against Sweden with Denmark (1481 and 1493). In 1486, a knight from Sylesia, someone Nicholas Poppel, visited Moscow. When he returned from Muscovy, he spoke of the Russian state, whose ruler was "more powerful and rich than the Polish king." It was a surprise for Europe, since the rumors spoke of Russia as a country still in subjugation of either Tatars or Poles. In 1489, Poppel visited Moscow again, this time as an ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire. He and Ivan III signed a treaty and Poppel offered Ivan to accept the title of the king. Ivan III replied: "By God's grace, we have been the lords of our land from the beginning, since our first forefathers, and we have been placed by God, and we never wanted and do not want any other permissions."

1801: Emperor Pavel I signed the Manifesto on the incorporation of Georgia into Russia. In XVI-XVIII centuries Georgia was under constant attacks of Persia and Ottoman empire, especially after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, when Georgia became cut from other Christian countries. Persia tried to eliminate the Georgian population entirely and the Ottomans were Turkifying the population of south-eastern Georgia. In early XVIII century, the Georgian king Vakhtang VI and other Georgian political figures find an asylum in Russia. In the end of 1782, king Erekle II asks Catherine to take Eastern Georgia (kingdom Kartli-Kakheti) under protection and in 1783 the treaty of Georgievsk was signed. Eastern Georgia gave up its autonomy and Russia guaranteed its independence and territorial integrity. Russia promised to increase the number of troops in Georgia, but failed to comply. In 1795, Persia attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Two Russian battalions retreated, but Russia sent 13,000 soldiers and liberated Georgia. Turkey also gave up all claims. In 1798, Erekle died and his son George XII became the king. Soon, his illness provoked instability in the country, when his son David and his half-brother Yulon contested the throne. Russia backed David and in December 1800 David became the regent of the Eastern Georgia. In January 1801 Russia violated the terms of the treaty of Georgievsk, removed David from power and proclaimed Eastern Georgia a part of the Russian empire. David was brought to St. Petersburg under a military escort, but in Russia he was freed, he settled in St. Petersburg, became a general and an important politician and in 1812 became a senator. In 1810, the Western Georgia (kingdom of Imereti) joined the Eastern Georgia and became a part of Russian empire.

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